Representing Systems with Models

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A model is an abstraction of a system that offers insight about the system, such as it's behavior, structure, properties or cost. Modeling is a common practice that is shared by most engineering disciplines and includes electrical circuit design models, three-dimensional computer-aided design models, software design models, and analytical models used to support power, thermal, structural, and embedded real-time analysis. Modeling systems are becoming increasingly important to the practice of systems engineering as a means to enhance quality, productivity, and innovation, as well as reduce the cost and risk of systems development. Different types of models are needed to represent systems in support of the analysis, specification, design, and verification of systems. This knowledge area provides an overview of models used to represent different aspects of systems.

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The topics contained within this knowledge area include:


Works Cited


Primary References

Dori, D. 2002. Object-Process Methodology – A Holistic Systems Paradigm. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Estefan, J. 2008. A Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies, rev, B. Seattle, WA: International Council on Systems Engineering. INCOSE-TD-2007-003-02. Available at

Friedenthal, S., A. Moore, and R. Steiner. 2009. "Chapter 2". A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language. Needham, MA, USA: OMG Press.

Guizzardi, G. 2007. On Ontology, Ontologies, Conceptualizations, Modeling Languages, and (Meta)Models. Proceedings of the Databases and Information Systems IV Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Available at

INCOSE. 2007. Systems Engineering Vision 2020. Seattle, WA, USA: International Council on Systems Engineering. September 2007. INCOSE-TP-2004-004-02. Available at

Wymore, A.W. 1993. Model-Based Systems Engineering. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, Inc.

Additional References

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SEBoK v. 1.9.1 released 30 September 2018

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