Difference between pages "Miniature Seeker Technology Integration Spacecraft" and "Systems Fundamentals"

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'''''Lead Authors:''''' ''Heidi Davidz, Art Pyster, Deva Henry'', '''''Contributing Authors:''''' ''Dave Olwell''
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'''''Lead Author:''''' ''Rick Adcock'', '''''Contributing Authors:''''' ''Janet Singer, Duane Hybertson''
 
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The Miniature Seeker Technology Integration (MSTI) spacecraft was the first of its kind: a rapid development spacecraft, designed and launched in one year.  As an aerospace example for a satellite application, the case study, "M.S.T.I.: Optimizing the Whole System" (Grenville, Kleiner, and Newcomb 2004), describes the project's systems engineering approach.  Driven by an aggressive schedule, MSTI optimized over the whole project, rather than allowing sub-optimizations at the component level.  As a partnership with Phillips Laboratories, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Spectrum Astro, MSTI went into orbit on November 21, 1992.  The MSTI-1 succeeded in meeting all primary mission objectives, surpassing the 6-day data collection mission requirement.
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This knowledge area (KA) provides a guide to some of the most important knowledge about a {{Term|System (glossary)|system}}, which forms part of {{Term|Systems Thinking (glossary)|systems thinking}} and acts as a foundation for the related worlds of integrative {{Term|Systems Science (glossary)|systems science}} and {{Term|Systems Approach (glossary)|systems approaches to practice}}.  
  
==Domain Background==
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This is part of the wider systems knowledge, which can help to provide a common language and intellectual foundation and make practical systems {{Term|Concept (glossary)|concepts}}, {{Term|Principle (glossary)|principles}}, patterns and tools accessible to {{Term|Systems Engineering (glossary)|systems engineering}} (SE) as discussed in [[Foundations of Systems Engineering|Part 2: Foundations of Systems Engineering]].  
There are many case study examples for aerospace systems.  This case is of particular interest because it highlights mechanisms which enabled successful performance following an aggressive schedule. Since this rapid development spacecraft was designed and launched in one year, new ways of structuring the project were necessary. Within this domain, the MSTI project used an innovative approach. Practices from this project led to the Mission Design Center and the System Test Bed at JPL.
 
  
==Case Study Background==
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==Topics==
This case study was developed in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Program and Project Management Initiative by authors at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Scientific Management, Inc. The case study was developed in the interest of continuously improving program and project management at NASA (NASA 2010).  Research for this case included comprehensive literature review and detailed interviews.  The project was selected based on the potential for providing lessons learned.
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Each part of the SEBoK is divided into KAs, which are groupings of information with a related theme. The KAs, in turn, are divided into topics. This KA contains the following topics:
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*[[Introduction to System Fundamentals]]
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*[[Types of Systems]]
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*[[Complexity]]
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*[[Emergence]]
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*[[Fundamentals for Future Systems Engineering]]
  
==Case Study Description==
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==Introduction==
The MSTI case study illustrates many principles described in the [[SEBoK Table of Contents|Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge (SEBoK)]]. The MSTI team had to make adjustments to the traditional approach to spacecraft development in order to stay within budget and to meet the aggressive timeline of bringing a spacecraft from conception to launch within one year. The team realized that they were "building Porsches not Formula 1s"(Grenville, Kleiner, Newcomb 2004). Meeting the schedule was a crucial factor that affected all decisions.  The SEBoK knowledge area on [[Life Cycle Models|life cycle models]] describes life cycle design in more detail.
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The word ''system'' is used in many areas of human activity and at many levels. But what do systems researchers and practitioners mean when they use the word ''system''? Is there some part of that meaning common to all applications? The following diagram summarizes the ways in which this question is explored in this KA.
  
The team took advantage of existing hardware architectures for their [[Physical Architecture Model Development|architectural design]] to expedite the project. In addition, at each design phase, the whole system was optimized instead of optimizing subsystems, and the level of optimization at the subsystem level was reduced. A hardware-in-the-loop test bed was used throughout the project, which expedited [[System Integration|system integration]].
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[[File:Fig_1_System_Fundamentals_and_Engineered_Systems_RA.png|thumb|center|800px|'''Figure 1. System Fundamentals and Engineered Systems.''' (SEBoK Original)]]
  
The schedule was maintained only at a high level in the project management office, and the costs were managed using a cost reporting technique for "cost to completion." Rather than report on past spending, the Responsible Engineering Authorities (REAs) were expected to continually evaluate their ability to complete their tasks within projected costsFaster procurement was achieved using the Hardware Acquisition Team, where a technical team member was matched with a procurement representative for each design functionThis pair wrote the specifications together and initiated the purchase requisitions.
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The concepts of {{Term|Open System (glossary)|open system}} and {{Term|Closed System (glossary)|closed system}} are exploredOpen systems, described by a set of {{Term|Element (glossary)|elements}} and relationships, are used to describe many real world phenomena.  Closed systems have no interactions with their {{Term|Environment (glossary)|environment}}Two particular aspects of systems, {{Term|Complexity (glossary)|complexity}} and {{Term|Emergence (glossary)|emergence}}, are described in this KABetween them, these two concepts represent many of the challenges which drive the need for {{Term|Systems Thinking (glossary)|systems thinking}} and an appreciation of systems science in SE.  
  
From the [[Systems Engineering Organizational Strategy|organizational perspective]], increased responsibility and accountability were given to each team member.  Individuals took ownership of their work and the decision process was streamlined.  The team made more "good decisions," rather than optimal decisions.  The team was collocated, and daily meetings were used to assign daily tasks and keep the team focused on the launch.  The standard Problem Failure Report (PFR) was streamlined and electronic reports provided snapshots of the resolved and outstanding PFRs.  The report helped REAs stay on top of potential problem areas.  REAs were responsible for looking forward on the project horizon and notifying the team of any potential problem areas.
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Some systems classifications, characterized by type of element or by {{Term|Purpose (glossary)|purpose}}, are presented.  
  
The first satellite in the MSTI series, MSTI-1, was launched on November 21, 1992. The spacecraft weighed 150 kg and was built for $19M in less than 12 months.  Over 200,000 photographs were returned from the spacecraft. From a project management standpoint, all mission objectives were completed.
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An {{Term|Engineered System (glossary)|engineered system}} is defined within the SEBoK as encompassing combinations of technology and people in the context of natural, social, business, public or political environments, created, used and sustained for an identified purpose. The application of the [[Systems Approach Applied to Engineered Systems]] requires the ability to position {{Term|Problem (glossary)|problems}} or {{Term|Opportunity (glossary)|opportunities}} in the wider system containing them, to create or change a specific engineered {{Term|System-of-Interest (glossary)|system-of-interest}}, and to understand and deal with the consequences of these changes in appropriate wider systems. The concept of a {{Term|System Context (glossary)|system context}} allows all of the system elements and relationships needed to support this to be identified.
  
In addition, MSTI had a lasting legacy.  Faster procurement developed into an approach JPL now calls "Fast Track Procurement."  Hardware acquisition teams are used often in JPL projectsThe hardware-in-the-loop test bed was the precursor to the Flight System Test Bed at JPL. Team members moved up quickly in JPL due to the increased responsibility and authority they were given on the MSTI project.
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The discussions of engineered system contexts includes the general idea of groups of systems to help deal with situations in which the elements of an engineered system are themselves independent engineered systemsTo help provide a focus for the discussions of how SE is applied to real world problems, four engineered system contexts are introduced in the KA:
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#{{Term|Product System (glossary)}} context
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#{{Term|Service System (glossary)}} context
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#{{Term|Enterprise System (glossary)}} context
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#{{Term|System of Systems (SoS) (glossary)}} context
  
==Summary==
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The details of how SE is applied to each of these contexts are described in [[Applications of Systems Engineering|Part 4: Applications of Systems Engineering]].
MSTI demonstrated that an aggressive schedule can be used to design low earth-orbiting spacecraft to optimize the full system.  The MSTI experience changed JPL's culture and their approach to spacecraft development and mission management.
 
The insights from this case study example can help both students and practitioners better understand principles described in the SEBoK.
 
  
==References==  
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==References==
  
 
===Works Cited===
 
===Works Cited===
Grenville, D., B.M. Kleiner, and J.F. Newcomb. 2004. ''M.S.T.I., Optimizing the Whole System.'' Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute, case study developed in support of the NASA Program and Project Management Initiative. 1-27. Accessed June 3, 2011Available at http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/293212main_58529main_msti_casestudy_042604.pdf.
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None.   
  
NASA. 2010. ''A Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies,'' version 1.6. Compiled by the Office of the Chief Knowledge Officer, Goddard Space Flight Center, MD, USA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Accessed June 3, 2011. Available at http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/pdf/450420main_NASA_Case_Study_Catalog.pdf.
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===Primary References===
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Bertalanffy, L., von. 1968. ''[[General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications]]'', rev. ed. New York, NY, USA: Braziller.
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Magee, C. L., O.L. de Weck. 2004. "[[Complex System Classification|Complex system classification]]."  Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Council on Systems Engineering International Symposium, Toulouse, France, 20-24  June 2004.
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Rebovich, G., and B.E. White (eds.). 2011. ''[[Enterprise Systems Engineering: Advances in the Theory and Practice]]''. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
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Sheard, S.A. and A. Mostashari. 2009. "[[Principles of Complex Systems for Systems Engineering|Principles of complex systems for systems engineering]]." ''Systems Engineering'', vol. 12, no. 4. pp. 295-311.
  
===Primary References===
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Tien, J.M. and D. Berg. 2003. "[[A Case for Service Systems Engineering|A case for service systems engineering]]." ''Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering'', vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 13-38.
None.
 
  
 
===Additional References===
 
===Additional References===
None.  
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None.
  
 
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<center>[[Applying a Model-Based Approach to Support Requirements Analysis on the Thirty-Meter Telescope|< Previous Article]] | [[Implementation Examples|Parent Article]] | [[Standard Korean Light Transit System|Next Article >]]</center>
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<center>[[Foundations of Systems Engineering|< Previous Article]] | [[Foundations of Systems Engineering|Parent Article]] | [[Introduction to System Fundamentals|Next Article >]]</center>
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[[Category:Part 2]]
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[[Category:Knowledge Area]]
  
 
<center>'''SEBoK v. 2.1, released 31 October 2019'''</center>
 
<center>'''SEBoK v. 2.1, released 31 October 2019'''</center>
 
[[Category: Part 7]][[Category:Example]]
 

Revision as of 19:53, 28 February 2020


Lead Author: Rick Adcock, Contributing Authors: Janet Singer, Duane Hybertson


This knowledge area (KA) provides a guide to some of the most important knowledge about a systemsystem, which forms part of systems thinkingsystems thinking and acts as a foundation for the related worlds of integrative systems sciencesystems science and systems approaches to practicesystems approaches to practice.

This is part of the wider systems knowledge, which can help to provide a common language and intellectual foundation and make practical systems conceptsconcepts, principlesprinciples, patterns and tools accessible to systems engineeringsystems engineering (SE) as discussed in Part 2: Foundations of Systems Engineering.

Topics

Each part of the SEBoK is divided into KAs, which are groupings of information with a related theme. The KAs, in turn, are divided into topics. This KA contains the following topics:

Introduction

The word system is used in many areas of human activity and at many levels. But what do systems researchers and practitioners mean when they use the word system? Is there some part of that meaning common to all applications? The following diagram summarizes the ways in which this question is explored in this KA.

Figure 1. System Fundamentals and Engineered Systems. (SEBoK Original)

The concepts of open systemopen system and closed systemclosed system are explored. Open systems, described by a set of elementselements and relationships, are used to describe many real world phenomena. Closed systems have no interactions with their environmentenvironment. Two particular aspects of systems, complexitycomplexity and emergenceemergence, are described in this KA. Between them, these two concepts represent many of the challenges which drive the need for systems thinkingsystems thinking and an appreciation of systems science in SE.

Some systems classifications, characterized by type of element or by purposepurpose, are presented.

An engineered systemengineered system is defined within the SEBoK as encompassing combinations of technology and people in the context of natural, social, business, public or political environments, created, used and sustained for an identified purpose. The application of the Systems Approach Applied to Engineered Systems requires the ability to position problemsproblems or opportunitiesopportunities in the wider system containing them, to create or change a specific engineered system-of-interestsystem-of-interest, and to understand and deal with the consequences of these changes in appropriate wider systems. The concept of a system contextsystem context allows all of the system elements and relationships needed to support this to be identified.

The discussions of engineered system contexts includes the general idea of groups of systems to help deal with situations in which the elements of an engineered system are themselves independent engineered systems. To help provide a focus for the discussions of how SE is applied to real world problems, four engineered system contexts are introduced in the KA:

  1. product systemproduct system context
  2. service systemservice system context
  3. enterprise systementerprise system context
  4. system of systems (sos)system of systems (sos) context

The details of how SE is applied to each of these contexts are described in Part 4: Applications of Systems Engineering.

References

Works Cited

None.

Primary References

Bertalanffy, L., von. 1968. General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, rev. ed. New York, NY, USA: Braziller.

Magee, C. L., O.L. de Weck. 2004. "Complex system classification." Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Council on Systems Engineering International Symposium, Toulouse, France, 20-24 June 2004.

Rebovich, G., and B.E. White (eds.). 2011. Enterprise Systems Engineering: Advances in the Theory and Practice. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.

Sheard, S.A. and A. Mostashari. 2009. "Principles of complex systems for systems engineering." Systems Engineering, vol. 12, no. 4. pp. 295-311.

Tien, J.M. and D. Berg. 2003. "A case for service systems engineering." Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 13-38.

Additional References

None.


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SEBoK v. 2.1, released 31 October 2019